As stated in the discussion of Fig.
A 3D image is stored and manipulated in computer memory much like a 2D image. Specifically, this second stratal reference surface followed the apex of the reflection troughs immediately above the thin-bed channels. This did not allow for correct imaging of complex or small geological structures, since they required detailed maps of geological facies of different depositions systems depicting fields discovered between the 1980s and 2000.
Dave received the Virgil Kauffman Gold Medal from the Society of Exploration Geophysics for his work on dip-moveout processing of seismic data.
Because each of these four seismic horizons is a good approximation of a constant-depositional-time surface, the four surfaces collectively are a good representation of the facies distribution within the total thin-bed sequence that they span. A third technique is to extend a series of conformable seismic stratal surface and stratal-bounded windows onto the thin-bed target from opposite directions, that is, from both below and above the thin-bed target.
Maximum flooding surfaces are interfaces that contain evidence of a widespread, upward, water-deepening facies dislocation that is associated with the inferred, deepest water facies encountered in a succession of strata. This expanded view of the seismic reflection character also reveals critical stratigraphic features, such as lowstand wedges, that are embedded in the faulted structure.
The application of this fundamental concept about the genetic origin of seismic reflections to seismic interpretation is referred to as stratal-surface seismic interpretation. A key first step in seismic interpretation is to use well logs and cores to identify the three types of stratal interfaces that exist in geologic intervals of interest:.
We use them to give you the best experience. To date, this is a reference milestone in the research of marine seismic data acquisition.
An implication of seismic stratigraphy that can be invoked in such an instance is that any seismic surface intermediate to A and B, which is also conformable to A and B, is also a stratal surface. These surfaces can be any of the chronostratigraphic surfaces flooding surfaces, maximum flooding surfaces, and erosion surfaces described in Sec.
An alternate, and usually more rigorous, way of determining facies distributions within a thin-bed sequence is to calculate seismic attributes in a data window that spans several data points vertically, yet is still confined approximately to only the thin-bed interval that needs to be studied. Instantaneous phase is useful for tracking reflection continuity and stratal surfaces across low- amplitude areas where it is difficult to see details of reflection waveform character.
A second technique is to expand the application of this stratal-surface concept by calculating seismic attributes inside a thin, stratal-bounded analysis window that is centered vertically on the thin-bed target. The CSEG does not endorse or warrant the information printed. Petrobras has a team of experienced geophysicists and geologists who are formally trained in technology acquisition, processing and seismic interpretation.Seismic Imaging
Another advantage of semi-automatic 3D interpretation is that our software may be less biased than we are. The bottom stratal surface of this data window must reasonably coincide with the onset depositional time of the sequence, and the top stratal surface must be a good approximation of the shutoff depositional time of the sequence. The geophysical industry is considering the possibility of increasing the density of spatial information, thereby allowing the improvement of seismic imaging of geological structures, particularly those that are smaller and more complex.
This surface shows portions of the Channel 1 system in the lower right quadrant of the image.